As a research led business we have been directly involved in a number of research projects which have resulted in journal articles, patents or other publications. Below are some citations for the use of Cairn equipment in biological research.

They are sorted by product to give easy access to the most relevant papers. Additionally we would suggest searching for “cairn research” alongside any other keyword.

OptoSplit II


January – A Specific Transitory Increase in Intracellular Calcium Induced by Progesterone Promotes Acrosomal Exocytosis in Mouse Sperm

February – Galanin inhibits GLP-1 and GIP secretion via the GAL1 receptor in enteroendocrine L and K cells

April – Mechanisms of the Human Telomerase Catalytic Cycle

April – Imaging Membrane Potential with Two Types of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensors

April –Role of enteroendocrine L-cells in arginine vasopressin-mediated inhibition of colonic anion secretion

May – Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans

May – Secretory cargo sorting by Ca2+-dependent Cab45 oligomerization at the trans-Golgi network

May – Neuronal activity mediated regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 surface diffusion in rat astrocytes in dissociated and slice cultures

June – Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes as platforms for cardiac disease modeling, therapeutic discovery and safety pharmacology

June – Intracellular labeling of live cells via transient membrane permeabilization for fluorescence and super resolution microscopy

July – Rab11 Regulates the Mast Cell Exocytic Response

July – Cardiomyocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients and methods of use thereof

July – Calcium influx through CRAC channels controls actin organization and dynamics at the immune synapse

July – TOR complex 2 localises to the cytokinetic actomyosin ring and controls the fidelity of cytokinesis

July – Experimental setup for the study of immobilized single nucleosomes using total internal reflection fluorescence

September – Dysferlin-mediated phosphatidylserine sorting engages macrophages in sarcolemma repair

September – High cell-surface density of HER2 deforms cell membranes

October – How to Measure Separations and Angles Between Intramolecular Fluorescent Markers

October – Time-resolved and polarised microspectroscopy of thin films of bio- and nanomaterials

October – Molecular mechanisms underlying inhibition of STIM1-Orai1-mediated Ca2+ entry induced by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate

November – Na+/H+ exchange via the Drosophila vesicular glutamate transporter mediates activity-induced acid efflux from presynaptic terminals

November – Identification of key phosphorylation sites in PTH1R that determine arrestin3 binding and fine-tune receptor signaling

November – Single-Particle FRET Microscopy of Immobilized Nucleosomes: Technique Development

November – Revealing calcium fluxes by analyzing inhibition dynamics in action potential clamp

December – Miro1‐dependent mitochondrial positioning drives the rescaling of presynaptic Ca2+ signals during homeostatic plasticity

December – Chitin oligomers for use in promoting non-leguminous plant growth and development

– Fluorescent Imaging Techniques


January – Chromatin organization, transcription factor dynamics and gene expression in higher eukaryotes with superresolution imaging and single molecule tracking

January – Polarized cellular patterns of endocannabinoid production and detection shape cannabinoid signaling in neurons

February – Alcohol Disrupts Levels and Function of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator to Promote Development of Pancreatitis 

February – Activation of Symbiosis Signaling by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Legumes and Rice

March – The Lantibiotic Nisin Induces Lipid II Aggregation, Causing Membrane Instability and Vesicle Budding

April – The Mechanical Properties of Early Drosophila Embryos Measured by High-Speed Video Microrheology

April – Adenylyl cyclases 5 and 6 underlie PIP3-dependent regulation

May – Mutations associated with Dent’s disease affect gating and voltage dependence of the human anion/proton exchanger ClC-5

May – Bacterial-induced calcium oscillations are common to nitrogen-fixing associations of nodulating legumes and non-legumes

May – Novel organic dyes for multicolor localization-based super-resolution microscopy

June – Induktion von Granzym B in humanen B-Zellen durch virale Antigene

June – Cooperative folding of intrinsically disordered domains drives assembly of a strong elongated protein

June – Optical detection of two-color-fluorophore barcode for nanopore DNA sensing

July – Inside-out Ca2+ signalling prompted by STIM1 conformational switch

August – The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Exhibiting the Warburg Effect Relies on Glycolytic ATP

August – Cdc42 and RhoA reveal different spatio-temporal dynamics upon local stimulation with Semaphorin-3A

August – Spectral demixing avoids registration errors and reduces noise in multicolor localization-based super-resolution microscopy

August – Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein–Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

September – Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter by N-cyanosulphonamide S0859

October – Single-molecule imaging of telomerase reverse transcriptase in human telomerase holoenzyme and minimal RNP complexes

October – Optimized measurements of separations and angles between intra-molecular fluorescent markers

November – Methods, systems and apparatus for size-based particle separation

November – Enhanced dimerization drives ligand-independent activity of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor in lung cancer

November – Correction of a Depth-Dependent Lateral Distortion in 3D Super-Resolution Imaging

November – Single Particle Tracking Reveals that EGFR Signaling Activity Is Amplified in Clathrin-Coated Pits

November – Developing Fast Fluorescent Protein Voltage Sensors by Optimizing FRET Interactions

December – A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

– Synthesis and Secretion of Incretins from the Gut

– Dynamics and Interactions of Individual Proteins in the Membrane of Single, Living Cells

– Simultaneous calcium imaging of multiple neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans




February – Use of P2X Purinergic Receptor Agonists to Enhance Insulin Secretion In Pancreatic Beta Cells

February – β-arrestin-2 is an essential regulator of pancreatic β-cell function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions

February – A sweet taste receptor-dependent mechanism of glucosensing in hypothalamic tanycytes

February – cAMP-dependent secretagogues stimulate the NaHCO3 cotransporter in the villous epithelium of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula

March – Multiple AMPK activators inhibit L-Carnitine uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotub

March – SNAT3-mediated glutamine transport in perisynaptic astrocytes in situ is regulated by intracellular sodium

March – Acute exhaustive aerobic exercise training impair cardiomyocyte function and calcium handling in Sprague-Dawley rats

March – Long-term incubation with CXCL2, but not with CXCL1, alters the kinetics of TRPV1 receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons

June – Lipopolysaccharides induced inflammatory responses and electrophysiological dysfunctions in human-induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes

August – Amino Acid Sensing in Hypothalamic Tanycytes via Umami Taste Receptors

September – Article | OPEN Characterization of a spectrally diverse set of fluorescent proteins as FRET acceptors for mTurquoise2

September – CXCL1 activates TRPV1 via Gi/o protein and actin filaments

September – Temporally precise single-cell-resolution optogenetics

September – Physiological Research Pre-Press Article

September – First draft genome sequence of a strain belonging to the Zoogloea genus and its gene expression in situ

October – Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinsonian Mesenchymal Stem Cells Impairs Differentiation


February – Sensing Cardiac Electrical Activity With a Cardiac Myocyte-Targeted Optogenetic Voltage Indicator

February – Spectroscopic modulation of multifunctionalized quantum dots for use as biological probes and effectors

April –Role of enteroendocrine L-cells in arginine vasopressin-mediated inhibition of colonic anion secretion

May – NSC-34 Motor Neuron-Like Cells Are Unsuitable as Experimental Model for Glutamate-Mediated Excitotoxicity

June – Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways

July – Exercise training reverses myocardial dysfunction induced by CaMKIIδC overexpression by restoring Ca2+ homeostasis

August – Agonist-induced sensitisation of the irritant receptor ion channel TRPA1

August – Intracellular pH response to weak acid stress in individual vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells

August – The TRPM2 ion channel is required for sensitivity to warmth

September – Deficiency of Parkinson’s disease-related gene Fbxo7 is associated with impaired mitochondrial metabolism by PARP activation

October – Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein Exerts a Physiological Role on Brain ATP Synthase

October – Evidence for Altered Ca2+ Handling in Growth Associated Protein 43-Knockout Skeletal Muscle

October – Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein Exerts a Physiological Role on Brain ATP Synthase

October – Effects of menthol on rat tail artery mediated by TRPM8 and voltage-gated calcium channels

November – In vivo characterization of distinct modality-specific subsets of somatosensory neurons using GCaMP

November – Nuclear translocation of PKCα isoenzyme is involved in neurogenic commitment of human neural crest-derived periodontal ligament stem cells

November – Glycosides from edible sea cucumbers stimulate macrophages via purinergic receptors

December – Pathogenic mycobacteria achieve cellular persistence by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick Type C disease cellular pathway

December – Glycosides from edible sea cucumbers stimulate macrophages via purinergic receptors

December – Quantitative analysis of the Ca2+-dependent regulation of delayed rectifier K+ current IKs in rabbit ventricular myocytes

December – Novel temperature-sensitive fluorescent compound and application thereof

– Calcium Imaging to Study NMDA Receptor-mediated Cellular Responses

– Long-term incubation with CXCL2, but not with CXCL1, alters the kinetics of TRPV1 receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons


January – Using siRNA to define functional interactions between melanopsin and multiple G Protein partners

January – 2-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy enables deeper high-resolution imaging of voltage and Ca2+ in intact mice, rat, and rabbit hearts

February – Sphingosylphosphorylcholine potentiates vasoreactivity and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry via NOX1 and reactive oxygen species

February – HIV-1 Tat activates a RhoA signaling pathway to reduce NMDA-evoked calcium responses in hippocampal neurons via an actin-dependent mechanism

February – HCO3−-independent pH Regulation in Astrocytes in Situ Is Dominated by V-ATPase

March – Propagation of Intracellular Ca 2+ Signals in Aged Exocrine Cells

March – Hypokalaemia induces Ca2+ overload and Ca2+ waves in ventricular myocytes by reducing Na+,K+-ATPase α2 activity

May – Circulating Pneumolysin Is a Potent Inducer of Cardiac Injury during Pneumococcal Infection

May – Bacterial-induced calcium oscillations are common to nitrogen-fixing associations of nodulating legumes and non-legumes

August – Zinc is a transmembrane agonist that induces platelet activation in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner

September – Intracellular zinc is a critical intermediate in the excitotoxic cascade

November – Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

– Voltage-gated sodium channels potentiate the invasive capacities of human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines

Transporte de piruvato en astocitos en reposo y bajo estimulacion por potasio: Participion de multiples vias de permeacion


Fluorescence Illumination