As a research led business we have been directly involved in a number of research projects which have resulted in journal articles, patents or other publications. Below are a list of citations for the use of Cairn equipment in biological research.

They are sorted by research area so as to give easy access to the most relevant papers. Additionally we would suggest searching for “cairn research” alongside any other keyword.


Condenser-free contrast methods for transmitted-light microscop

Circadian Rhythm

In-depth Characterization of Firefly Luciferase as a Reporter of Circadian Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway Regulates the Circadian Clock

Cardiac Science

Carotid sinus denervation (CSD) ameliorates renovascular hypertension in adult Wistar rats

Effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate on L-type calcium current and Ca2+ transient in rat ventricular myocytes

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling within cardiac myocytes targets phospholamban
Acute Suppressive and Long-Term Phase Modulation Actions of Orexin on the Mammalian Circadian Clock
β-Adrenergic signaling accelerates and synchronizes cardiac ryanodine receptor response to a single L-type Ca2+ channel

Obligatory role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the heart’s antioxidant adaptation with exercise

Heme oxygenase-1 regulates cell proliferation via carbon monoxide-mediated inhibition of T-type Ca2+ channels

Quantification of the Transmural Dynamics of Atrial Fibrillation by Simultaneous Endocardial and Epicardial Optical Mapping in an Acute Sheep Model

Sphingosylphosphorylcholine potentiates vasoreactivity and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry via NOX1 and reactive oxygen species


The use of ratiometric fluroescense measurments of the voltage sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS to examine action potential characteristics and drug effects on humans


Genetically Targeted Optical Electrophysiology in Intact Neural Circuits
Transduction without Tip Links in Cochlear Hair Cells Is Mediated by Ion Channels
Fragile X mental retardation protein controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis by modulating N-type calcium channel density – UCL, London – April 2014
Ultrasensitive fluorescent proteins for imaging neuronal activity
PINK1-associated Parkinson’s disease is caused by neuronal vulnerability to calcium-induced cell death

Using simultaneous voltage and calcium imaging to study fast Ca2+ channels

Defects During Mecp2 Null Embryonic Cortex Development Precede the Onset of Overt Neurological Symptoms

Adenylyl cyclases 5 and 6 underlie PIP3-dependent regulation

Calcium activates the light-dependent conductance in melanopsin-expressing photoreceptors of amphioxus

Speed and sensitivity of phototransduction in Drosophila depend on degree of saturation of membrane phospholipids

Neuronal activity mediated regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 surface diffusion in rat astrocytes in dissociated and slice cultures


Genetically encoded calcium indicators for multi-color neural activity imaging and combination with optogenetics
Deciphering the neuronal circuitry controlling local blood flow in the cerebral cortex withoptogenetics in PV:: Cre transgenic mice
A microfluidic chip for axonal isolation and electrophysiological measurements
A Method for Activation of Endogenous Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a (ASIC1a) in the Nervous System with High Spatial and Temporal Precision


Molecular mechanisms underlying inhibition of STIM1-Orai-mediated Ca2+ entry induced by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate

Time-resolved and polarised microspectroscopy of thin films of bio-and nanomaterials

How to measure separations of angles between intramolecular and fluorescent markers 


Revealing calcium fluxes by analysing inhibition dynamics in action potential clamp


The TRPM2 ion channel is required for sensitivity to warmth

Intracelullar pH response to weak acid stress in individual vegetative Bacillus Subtilis

Effects of menthol on rat tail artery mediated by TRPM8 and voltage-gated calcium channels

Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein exerts a physiological role on brain ATP synthase

Deficiency of Parkinson’s disease-related gene Fbxo7 is associated with impaired mitochondrial metabolism by PARP activation

Nuclear translocation of PKCa isoenzyme is involved in neurogenic commitment of human neural crest-derived periodontal ligament stem cells

In vivo characterisation of distinct modality-specific subsets of somatosensory neurons using GCaMP

Super Resolution

Real-Time Analysis and Visualization for Single-Molecule Based Super-Resolution Microscopy
Fast, single-molecule localization that achieves theoretically minimum uncertainty – New Mexico, USA – April 2010
Single-Molecule Spectroscopic Imaging Studies of Polarity Gradients Prepared by Infusion-Withdrawal Dip-Coating
3D high-density localization microscopy using hybrid astigmatic/ biplane imaging and sparse image reconstruction


Formins Determine the Functional Properties of Actin Filaments in Yeast


Bacterial‐induced calcium oscillations are common to nitrogen‐fixing associations of nodulating legumes and nonlegumes


Phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567 is required for the synergistic activation of cell spreading by EPAC1 and protein kinase A in HEK293T cells
Spatial receptive fields in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of mice lacking rods and cones
Hypokalaemia induces Ca2+ overload and Ca2+ waves in ventricular myocytes by reducing Na+, K+‐ATPase α2 activity

Bringing Awareness of Fluid Mechanics to Reproductive Medicine

Axial stretch-dependent cation entry in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Involvement of several TRPs channels

Role of enteroendocrine L-cells in arginine vasopressin-mediated inhibition of colonic anion secretion

The acquisition of mechano-electrical transducer current adaptation in auditory hair cells requires myosin VI

Time-invariant feed-forward inibition of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex in vivo

Modulation of Mammary Stromal Cell Lactate Dynamics by Ambient Glucose and Epithelial Factors

Impaired P2X1 Recpector-Mediated Adhesion in Eosinophils from Asthmatic Patients

Zinc is a transmembrane agonist that induces platelet activation in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner

Biodentine Reduces tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-induced TRPA1 Expression in Odontoblastlike Cells

Functional coupling of diverse voltage-gated Ca2+ channels underlies high fidelity of fast dendritic Ca2+ signals during burst firing

A specific transitory increase in intracellular calcium induced by progesterone promotes acrosoamal exocytosis in mouse sperm

TOR complex 2 localises to the cytokinetis actomyosin ring and controls the fidelity of cytokenesis

Generation and usage of aequorin lentiviral vectors for Ca 2+ measurement in sub-cellular compartments of hard-to-transfect cells